There are a lot of reasons to want to know the sex of your koi. It’s obviously very helpful in breeding, and a lot of koi owners are just curious or want gender-appropriate names. I personally tend to respect the privacy of my koi as an equal-opportunity Fish Overlord, but to each his or her own.
Sexing your koi is much easier when they’re mature and over 12 inches or so, but it can still be done with some accuracy before then. It’s actually pretty simple, if not always easy. There are two main indicators of sex in koi. The easiest way to tell is from fin shape and color. Male koi have smaller, more pointed fins that are opaque and generally colorful. Female koi, on the other hand, have larger, rounded fins that are partly or completely translucent or even transparent. The second way to tell, body shape, is a bit harder to judge, especially with younger koi. Males are relatively long and thin of body, whereas females are built wider to accomodate the eggs. This lends them the blimp-like shape that a lot of us associate with higher-end koi. The width of the body is the main reason that female koi are more often show koi, as the wider body shows the patterns and color better.
Another physical difference between male and female koi isn’t particularly useful for determining the sex of your pond fish, but I think that it’s worth including. Female koi tend to grow larger than males. This is thought to be because of the breeding methods that have been used for generations in Japan. To maximize genetic variety (though this wasn’t exactly well-understood at the time), breeders would expose each breeding female to several breeding males. This was understandably pretty rough on the female (I’ll not get further into that), so to compensate and protect the females, larger females were paired with smaller males. Over generations, this selection for smaller, slower-growing males and larger females led to the entire line tending in that direction, an interesting unintended consequence of selective breeding.